Cisco CCNA exam Cram Sheet
Layer 4 Protocol Suite
! – Reply from target address
. – Timeout
U – Destination unreachable
C – Congestion experienced
I – User interrupt
? – Unknown packet type
& – Packet lifetime exceeded
Ethernet 5-4-3 rule – Between any 2 nodes there can only be a maximum of 5 segments, 4 repeaters and only 3 of those segments can have hosts.
Loop back address – 127.0.0.1, tests
How to Grant Send As access to a user
This is a quick guide to grant Send As permission to a user on a distribution list, this is so that receiver would see that the reply address is that of the ”distribution list” and not the user who sent the mail. If the recipient would then reply, the distribution list would recieve the reply.
Start ”Active directory users and computers, and search for the Group that you want to grant ”send as” rights for a user.
Right Click on the Selected group and click Properties
Click on the security tab.
Click ‘Add’ then type the User’s name you want to grant se
Run command or Install a program as administrator
One of the common issues faced by IT Teams is installing or completing administrative tasks either remotely, or while logged on as a user with limited rights. The easiest way to complete this is to use the runas command to run the application / file as an administrative user.
Type CMD.EXE in the search box.
Type RUNAS /USER:\
You can also use “COMPUTERNAME\ADMINISTRATOR”. The command will then prompt you to enter the password, which is masked from the user (it will just appear as if there is nothing typed).
This is useful if installing from the user’s profile etc, bu
If you want to add the My Computer Icon to the Windows 10 Desktop, or any of the standard User folder icon to the desktop in Windows 10 (Computer, Recycle Bin, Control Panel).
Step1: Right-click on the desktop and choose Personalize.
Step 2: Select Themes on the left-hand menu, and then once you are there, you can select Desktop icon settings under the “Related Settings” section.
Step 3: You will now be able to click the checkboxes for the icons that you want back. once done click apply and Ok.
Developing SMART Objectives for IT
Probably the best way to develop well-written objectives is to use the SMART approach. Developing specific, measurable objectives requires time, orderly thinking, and a clear picture of the Results expected from activities. The more specific your objectives are, the easier it will be to demonstrate success.
Specific: What exactly are we going to do for whom?
The “specific” part of an objective tells us what will change for whom in concrete terms. It identifies the setting and specific actions required to achieve the object
Re-paring a Logitech Wireless Headsets with the receiver
In the event your ClearChat PC needs to be re-paired with its original receiver or a replacement receiver, follow the steps below:
Turn on the ClearChat PC Wireless headset.
Insert the receiver into a USB port.
Press and hold down the Mute and Volume – (Volume Down) button located on the right earpiece until the LED blinks green rapidly. This usually takes 15 seconds.
If the receiver is recognized by the computer properly, the LED on the receiver should blink green slowly. Insert a paper clip or small pin into the Connect/reset hole (located on topside of receiver above the U
Troubleshooting a Random reboot or shutdown can be very frustrating, Sometimes you will see your computer getting restarted or shutdown automatically without any warning. This is a frustrating scenario when you are working on some important stuff and your computer restarts without any notice. Of course this is an improper restart or shutdown and may damage your computer’s hardware like Hard Disk or may damage your Operating System like Windows. This is a common problem in old computers specially PCs i.e. computers running on Windows OS. But there may be different reasons for this common problem. Here are some of the reasons which may ca
If you search for items in Microsoft Office Outlook 2007 and do not receive the results that you expect, the indexing of your Microsoft Windows and Microsoft Office system data files (the search catalog) may not be complete.
You can rebuild the search catalog, which restarts the indexing of your data files. To rebuild your search catalog, do the following:
Click the Start button, and then click Control Panel.
Do one of the following:
Windows Vista Click System Maintenance, and then click Indexing Options.
if you are in Classic view, double-click Indexing Options.
Microsoft Windows XP Under See Also, c
Windows Fax and Scan Cannor Run as it cannot run as it cannot access your documents folder. Please ensure that windows Fax and Scan can access that folder.
Step 1: Disable Windows Fax and Scan
To turn a feature off in earlier versions of Windows, you had to uninstall it completely from your computer. In this version of Windows, the features remain stored on your hard disk so you can turn them back on if you want to. Turning off a feature does not uninstall the feature, and it does not reduce the amount of hard disk space used by Windows features.
To turn Windows Fax and Scan off, follow these steps:
Click the Start button , click Cont
Audit users Logon/logoff as well as Startup/Shutdown with batch file
Here are four simple Batch files you can use to audit your users logon/logoff as well as startup/shutdown activity. to install simply create the following four batch files. you can either use the startup folder in windows if you dont use Active Directory or I would suggest using Logon/Logoff shutdown/startup scripts in Group Policy.
for /f “Tokens=2 Delims=” %%i in (‘ping -n 1 “%computername%”‘) do set IP=%%i
echo %username% logged ON %computername%, IP=%IP% @ %time% %date% >> \serveraudits$users%username%.txt
Connect Remotely to Any Computer (Windows, Mac OSX) Over Internet
Whether you are trying to access your home PC from your office, or your office workstation from home, you need to establish a remote desktop connection over Internet. Many times accessing a remote computer is not so easy. For instance there could be firewalls blocking access, or the two PCs could be on different OS not compatible with each other, and so on.
In these kind of scenarios, TeamViewer comes to rescue. This free for non-commercial usage tool lets you quickly connect to a remote machine, control it completely including reboot/logoff, do audio and video chat, transfer f
Windows 7: Modify UAC (User Account Control)
The User Account Control security feature was one of the most reviled additions to Windows, with good reason – its constant warning messages asking for permission to continue many operations drove the users around the bend. UAC has been improved upon a lot in Windows 8 but you can still tweak it if you like.
Here’s is how to turn UAC on or off, and make it less or more intrusive than the default:
Go to the Control Panel –> User Accounts and Family Safety.
Click User Accounts , then click Change User Account Control Settings.
If confirmation password is asked provide it and then move to c
ControlGuard Agent (CGAgent.exe) Removal Using the MSI
Step 1 – On your ControlGuard server Generate a universal machine password (valid for 7 days) using the RemoveAgentPasswordGen.exe. (See Zip File below)
open a Command Prompt
Run “C:Program FilesControlGuardEAMRemoveAgentPasswordGen.exe” ComputerName
Copy and Paste the Uninstall Password into a text file in a temporary location. You should then copy this into the clipboard before running the MSI package uninstall.
Step 2 – Log into the computer that you want to uninstall ControlGuard from. Ensure that all applications are closed then run.
Setup.exe (See Zip File
Access Control Lists (ACL)
Access Control Lists are used to:
Restrict or reduce updates
Provide basic security
Block types of traffic
Access control list placement
Standard ACLs – Place as close to destination as possible.
Extended ACLs – Place as close to source of traffic as possible.
Only one ACL per port per direction is allowed.
ACL are more efficient on outbound port.
If a packet does not match the ACL statement then it will be implicitly denied.
Once a packet matches an ACL statement no other checks are made, it is permitted.
ACL IOS commands
Standard ACLs – Used to permit or deny an e
Some basic steps to change Windows 7 Power plans.
Changing power plan and its related settings can be very effective in ensuring you system is running well yet still saving you money with excess power usage. Here are a few steps to help with selecting a power plan in Windows
To select an appropriate power plan for your laptop or PC,
Click Start, Control Panel, and then
Click Hardware and Sound.
Click Power Options.
In the Select a power plan window, select the power plan you wish to use
Close the Select a power plan window.
A power plan is a collection of hardware and system settings that manage how your computer uses power. You can use po
With more than 12 years IT experience iv come up with some novel and often unanticipated solutions of difficult problems. I created TechTips.co.za as a multi-purpose reference site where I am compiling a collection of some handy hints, tips and general guides I have come across during my IT career.